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Dietary supplements during pregnancy and lactation

A woman during pregnancy and lactation needs not only a calmer rhythm of life, but most importantly, a balanced diet and the supply of all the necessary nutrients. From the first days of pregnancy, the body begins hormonal adjustment and prepares for the development of the embryo. Every organ system of a woman reacts to it.

Often, pregnant women suffer from toxicosis during the first months of pregnancy, or even the entire period. And this is a kind of obstacle to the assimilation of all vitamins and minerals with food. What to do in this case? Doctors recommend taking all these substances in the form of dietary supplements or special vitamin complexes for pregnant women. This will allow the pregnant woman and the fetus to develop normally, avoiding the risk of various pathologies.

You can find high-quality and certified dietary supplements in the Froomo online store. The virtual catalog presents both individual types of vitamins and specialized complexes. Available high-quality products from European, American and domestic manufacturers: BIOCYTE, FITOPRODUCT, MASTELLI, SIMILDIET. The dosage and list of vitamins and minerals should be taken after consultation with a doctor.


Benefits of dietary supplements and vitamins for pregnant women

Dietary supplements are substances of natural origin that help maintain the necessary level of micro- and macroelements in the body and promote faster recovery after illness.

Of course, they, like vitamins, are used by athletes for greater performance and women for a normal course of pregnancy.

When a woman is planning a pregnancy, she should pay more attention to her diet, work schedule, and rest. During this period, every woman becomes more sensitive and vulnerable, as a significant part of the body's resources and energy is spent for the normal development of the fetus. Often, even with a balanced diet, it is not always possible to provide the body with all the necessary macro- and microelements. Almost every third pregnant woman has hypovitaminosis problems. A woman's immune system also suffers from a lack of nutrients, making her more vulnerable to infectious diseases.

Hypovitaminosis in pregnant women manifests itself in the form of the following symptoms:

  • constant fatigue;

  • lack of appetite;

  • deterioration of the condition of the skin and hair;

  • irritability, decreased concentration of attention;

  • sleep disturbance.

And a woman's poor health always has a negative effect on the condition of the fetus. Of course, this also affects the development of the baby, especially when the skeleton and internal organs are being formed. Therefore, doctors very often prescribe vitamins and minerals in the form of nutritional supplements and special complexes for pregnant women. What is their benefit?

If we compare general-strengthening multivitamins, dietary supplements especially for pregnant women have a more balanced dosage of folic acid, vitamins A, C, E, D. They, like medicines, should be taken after consulting a doctor. After a blood test, he will be able to find out which vitamins you need in addition, prescribe the dosage and timing of administration.

What is the effect of vitamins and dietary supplements on the body of pregnant women:

  • improving the functional capacity of the reproductive system;

  • strengthening the immune system;

  • maintenance of hemoglobin and protection against anemia;

  • synthesis of hormones;

  • prevention of perinatal mortality and premature births;

  • the formation of the baby's bones and teeth without harming the pregnant woman;

  • reducing the risk of preeclampsia;

  • placenta protection;

  • reducing the risk of fetal malformations.

Stress, unbalanced nutrition and vitamin deficiency provoke the occurrence of anemia in pregnant women and birth defects of the fetus. After all, during pregnancy, the child receives all the necessary substances from the mother. Obstetricians and gynecologists recommend taking some vitamins six months before you plan to conceive. For example, taking folic acid prevents pathology of the development of the neural tube of the fetus. Vitamins and minerals will contribute to the normalization of the menstrual cycle and improve the quality of eggs.


What nutritional supplements should pregnant women take - a list and recommendations

When a woman is pregnant, her body undergoes hormonal changes, the need for vitamins and minerals increases, and much more energy is spent. All this naturally affects the development of the fetus. An additional complex of vitamins and minerals is necessary for every pregnant woman. Many nutritional supplements and complexes have been developed specifically for pregnant women, which include folic acid, iron, iodine, calcium, magnesium, and selenium.

Let's consider the existing recommendations for the use of vitamins and minerals during pregnancy:

Folic acid (B9)

The norm is 400-800 mcg per day. It is recommended to start taking 3 months before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy, at least. It is one of the main vitamins for pregnant women. Developmental defects and fetal neural tube pathology occur in most cases due to folic acid deficiency. Its excess does not accumulate in the body, so it is safe for the body.


The dosage is 200-250 mcg per day, except for women with thyrotoxicosis. If you do not get enough iodine, there will be a problem with the production of hormones, which are necessary for the normal growth and development of the fetus, especially the brain, which will later affect intelligence. Without the necessary amount of iodine, the work of the thyroid gland is disturbed. It is recommended to take from the first days of pregnancy, especially for those who live in iodine-deficient areas far from the coast.

Vitamin D

It should be taken in a prophylactic dose of 400-1000 IU throughout pregnancy. The amount of vitamin D should be monitored especially in the winter and spring period. The vitamin is important for the child even in the womb, improving phosphorus-calcium metabolism, helping to form the skeleton. It is a prevention of preeclampsia and the development of placental insufficiency. Therefore, during pregnancy, the daily dose of vitamin D should be increased accordingly. It can be obtained with plant and animal products. However, its main production occurs due to ultraviolet light. Expectant mothers are recommended to take walks in the fresh air in sunny weather.

Omega 3

Dosage 650-950 mg per day. Supplementation is especially important if you don't eat enough saltwater fish and seafood. Of all available fatty acids, it plays a key role during pregnancy. It is not produced by the body and must come with food or dietary supplements. Omega-3 is a structural component of the retina of the eye, the brain and affects cognitive functions, reduces the level of depression during and after pregnancy.


With iron deficiency anemia, the dosage is approximately 30 mg per day. Iron plays a significant role in our body. It has a direct connection to the hemoglobin of the blood, which, in turn, provides oxygen to organs and tissues. An insufficient amount of this element in a pregnant woman can provoke fetal hypoxia and uterine bleeding. Iron preparations will help to avoid anemia.


The recommended rate is 1000-1200 mg. It is found in yogurt, kefir and cheese. If you do not consume enough of these products, it is recommended to take them in the form of supplements. It is also prescribed to pregnant women who are at risk of preeclampsia. Calcium is necessary not only for building bone tissue, but also for the development of the cardiovascular system. If a woman has a calcium deficiency, problems with hair loss, brittle nails, tooth decay, and osteoporosis immediately appear. After all, a significant part of the necessary calcium for the child is taken from the mother's body.


A vitamin that prevents the progression of autoimmune processes during pregnancy. It is a trace element that is part of functional proteins in the form of selenocysteine ​​and affects the regulation and metabolism of thyroid hormones. As research by British scientists proves, the level of selenium decreases during pregnancy, due to which the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the blood plasma and placenta decreases. A low concentration of selenium in the mother in the early gestational period serves as a marker of premature birth. It also affects fetal growth and increases the risk of low birth weight.


In the late stages of pregnancy, it is needed for normal intrauterine growth and the formation of the immune system. An insufficient amount of zinc during childbirth can provoke bleeding. Zinc itself is not produced by the body, which is why it is so important to get it from the outside. It helps in the construction of cells and DNA of the baby. The dosage of this trace element depends on age and is approximately 12 mg per day.

Vitamin A

It is important to control it, because an excessive amount is not useful for the development of the fetus. It is sufficient in vegetables and fruits. It is better to take vitamin A in prophylactic doses. The daily rate of vitamin A for a pregnant woman is 1300 mcg. It is necessary for the development of the immune system of the fetus and the formation of lung alveoli. This vitamin is important for the development of the digestive, respiratory and visual systems. It is found in animal liver and cod, carrots and bell pepper.

Vitamins of group B

A whole series of vitamins that play a significant role in the development of the fetus, the nervous system and the formation of internal organs and development. Riboflavin (B2), thiamine (B1), nicotinic acid (B3) are important for brain development, vision formation, DNA and hematopoiesis.

Vitamin E

It has antioxidant properties, like vitamin A, and participates in energy metabolism. The recommended dose for pregnant women is 20 mg per day. Vitamin E participates in the maturation of the placenta, without which the life of the fetus is impossible. In women, it regulates the production of sex hormones and prolactin. Vitamin E has a positive effect on the condition of the skin, hair and nails. Cooperates with vitamin A and helps to strengthen immunity, actively participates in the development of the respiratory system. Vitamin E is found in greens, oils, almonds, sunflower seeds, broccoli, avocados.

Vitamin C

It is important for carrying out biochemical processes, participates in iron assimilation and folate metabolism. Strengthens the immunity of a pregnant woman. The required rate for pregnant women is 85 mg per day. It is important for the formation of skin and bones. With a small deficiency, doctors usually prescribe the use of products with a sufficient content of this vitamin: lemon, parsley, kiwi, bell pepper, rose hip.

Vitamins and minerals can be taken in a complex, but with a significant deficiency, they can be prescribed separately, depending on the condition of the pregnant woman. Be sure to choose dietary supplements according to the doctor's recommendation.


Restrictions and recommendations regarding the use of vitamins and dietary supplements during pregnancy

If you are planning your pregnancy, you should not only eat a balanced diet, get rid of bad habits, avoid stress, but also start taking folic acid in a preventive dosage.

Pregnancy is divided into trimesters, and according to the needs and condition of a pregnant woman, she needs different vitamins and minerals.

The first trimester

In the first trimester of pregnancy, the fetus is just beginning to develop and the placenta is not yet fully formed. During this period, you should not exceed the norm of vitamin A, C and copper. Vitamin A, in addition to such important positive qualities, also has a negative keratolytic effect and can lead to the development of pathologies in the fetus. In the first months of pregnancy, the baby's organs and systems are laid. There is a need for increased amounts of folic acid, iodine, vitamin D, B12 and iron. Folic acid is a prevention of congenital defects of the nervous system. B12 is involved in cell division and is very important in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Zinc is a key element for the work of more than 500 enzymes.

Intensive development of the nervous system during this period requires a sufficient supply of iodine. Usually, the dosage should be selected by the doctor. Consumption of magnesium ensures a normal tone of the uterus and helps reduce cramps. The first trimester of pregnancy can be considered the most important for pregnancy and for the formation of the fetus.

The second trimester

The second trimester is characterized by further development of the child's organs and systems. After the 12th week, doctors prescribe preventive doses of vitamins A, C and D. At this stage, vitamin A promotes weight gain and bone tissue development. Vitamins of group B actively contribute to the development of the fetus and help pregnant women maintain the necessary level of estrogens in the body, especially B12. We get the necessary amount of vitamins B5 and B6 with food, their deficiency is not so common.

You should also eat properly, as dietary supplements cannot completely compensate for nutrient deficiencies. It is necessary to understand that an excess of vitamins and minerals is also not good for the health of the pregnant woman and the fetus. At this stage, iron, magnesium, and selenium do not require excessive dosage increases.

The third trimester

The third trimester is characterized by an increase in the weight of the fetus, the final development of its organs and preparation for childbirth.

The norm in choline and cysteine ​​increases by 2 times. The child gains weight and, accordingly, the load on the internal organs of the mother, especially on the urinary and cardiovascular systems, increases. Vitamins of group B, E, iron and selenium play a supporting role. In this trimester, if necessary, doctors can prescribe dietary supplements with retinoids.

The dosage of micro- and macroelements depends on the analyzes and history of the pregnant woman. A woman still receives the main part with food, but some vitamins and minerals must come in the form of nutritional supplements and drugs. It is not recommended to self-medicate and self-prescribe vitamins, especially during pregnancy. Choose supplements designed specifically for pregnant women and inform your doctor beforehand. If you take other medicines, you need to check whether they are combined with each other. Be sure to pay attention to the warehouse and whether they have quality certificates.

After the baby is born, during the lactation period, it may be necessary to adjust the use of dietary supplements, because everything that a woman consumes gets to the baby through milk.


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